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Neuroscience

Here you can find all the information and products about neuroscience!

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Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary science devoted to the study of the nervous system's structure and function, which involves:

  • Cognitive neuroscience, focusing on the neural substrates of mental processes.
  • Cellular and molecular biology.
  • Psychology, which is centred on the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, including feelings and thoughts.
  • Pharmacology, which concerns drug-induced changes of the neural cells.

The Nervous System is divided into two different structures:

  • The Central Nervous System (CNS), which consists of the brain and spinal cord. The brain is further divided into cerebral cortex, cerebellum and brain stem.
  • The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

The main function of the CNS is to gather all the sensory neurons, process the information, and send out responses through motor neurons. This structure is responsible for regulating and maintaining homeostasis through its receptors. The cerebral cortex is responsible for integrating sensory impulses, directing motor activity, and controlling higher intellectual functions. The cerebellum helps in movement coordination and regulates temperature. Most limbic pathologies affect this part of the brain. The brainstem connects the brain to the spinal cord and controls the balance, coordination, and reflexes.

The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consists of nerves that connect the CNS to the rest of the body. These nerves, which are aggregates of neurons processes, can be categorised as cranial nerves (sensory, motor, or mixed), and spinal nerves. The PSN controls voluntary and involuntary bodily functions and regulates the glands.

Conditions affecting the nervous system are defined as neurological diseases. Among these are:  

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
  • Friedreich’s ataxia
  • Huntington’s disease (HD)
  • Lewy body dementia
  • Motor neuron diseases (MND)
  • Prion disease
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)

These neurodegenerative diseases are disorders marked by the progressive degeneration of the central or peripheral nervous system's structure and function. Neuroscience research requires a good range of life science products to study new methods for diagnosis and treatment. At 2BScientific, we are devoted to creating cutting-edge research products to assist in the study of neurodegeneration, including monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal antibodies, antibody conjugates, proteins, immunoassays, small molecule inhibitors, and active preformed fibrils (PFFs).

The main targets for the study of these pathologies have been identified through the generation of toxic proteins and their accumulation into aggregates in the form of extracellular plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and cytoplasmic or intranuclear inclusions. A few examples are as follows:

  • Aβ1–42 accumulates in senile Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Filamentous tau inclusions are a common feature in sporadic disorders and frontotemporal dementia.
  • The key target of prion disease is the mutant protein, termed PrPsc, which forms fibrils and numerous amyloid deposits.
  • The protein α-synuclein is found in inclusions called Lewy bodies in PD14 and mutant SOD1 is found in intraneuronal inclusions in some forms of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
  • For polyglutamine expansion disorders, Huntington’s disease is the prototypical example, and mutant huntingtin protein is found sequestered in cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions within affected cortical pyramidal neurons of the brain.

The scientific research on these conditions involves the use of a range of fibrillar and oligomeric protein preparations, such as alpha-synuclein, tau protein and many more. Alpha-synuclein is a distinctive hallmark of Parkinson’s disease, and therefore has a potential application in the diagnosis and treatment of it. Tau is a microtubule-associated protein involved in axonal transport which, under pathological conditions, forms anomalous assembly into insoluble aggregates. This leads to synaptic dysfunction and neural cell death and is mainly related to Alzheimer’s. Another popular target is SOD1, a pathological hallmark of familial ALS causing mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to motor neuron pathology and death. Mutant SOD1 accumulate inside the intermembrane space (IMS), misfolded SOD1 deposit onto the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), clumping the transport across mitochondrial membranes and engaging mitochondrial-dependent cell apoptosis. Finally, transthyretin (TTR) is an amyloid binding protein with a neuroprotective role in Alzheimer’s therapeutics.

Techniques such as Western Blot, ICC, Flow Cytometry, ELISA and IHC have all been used extensively to characterise key neuronal targets, not only supporting the investigation of neuronal physiology but also providing insight into these neurological disorders.

We offer a broad range of products to support neuroscience research, including high-quality antibodies raised against the following targets: