Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary science devoted to the study of the nervous system's structure and function, which mainly involves, cellular and molecular biology, cognitive neuroscience, pharmacology and neurodegeneration.
The main function of the CNS is to gather all the sensory neurons, process the information, and send out responses through motor neurons. However, the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consists of nerves that connect the CNS to the rest of the body and controls voluntary and involuntary bodily functions, and regulates the glands.
Conditions affecting the nervous system are defined as neurodegenerative diseases. Among these are:
- Parkinson’s disease
- Alzheimer's disease
- Multiple Sclerosis
- Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
- Huntington’s disease (HD)
- Lewy body dementia
- Motor neuron diseases (MND)
- Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA)
- Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)
The main targets for the study of these pathologies have been identified through the generation of toxic proteins and their accumulation into aggregates in the form of extracellular plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and cytoplasmic or intranuclear inclusions. A few examples are as follows:
- Amyloid-beta 1–42, is generated by protease cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP), which aggregates into oligomers, protofibrils, fibrils, and ultimately plaques accumulate in Alzheimer’s disease. Another distinctive hallmark for Alzheimer’s disease; Tau which is a microtubule-associated protein involved in axonal transport that, under pathological conditions, forms anomalous assembly into insoluble aggregates.
- The protein alpha-synuclein is found in inclusions called Lewy bodies in PD14.
- Mutant SOD1 accumulates inside the intermembrane space (IMS), and misfolded SOD1 deposits onto the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), clumping the transport across mitochondrial membranes and engaging mitochondrial-dependent cell apoptosis.
Techniques such as Western Blot, ICC, Flow Cytometry, ELISA, and IHC have all been used extensively to characterize key neuronal targets, not only supporting the investigation of neuronal physiology but also providing insight into these neurological disorders.
Neuroscience research requires a good range of life science products to study new methods for diagnosis and treatment. At 2B Scientific, we are devoted to providing cutting-edge research products to assist in the study of neurodegeneration, including antibodies, proteins, immunoassays, small molecules, and a range of monomeric, oligomeric protein preparations and fibrilized (pre-formed fibrils/PFFs).