Highly conserved mechanisms that govern cell signalling play a central role in coordinating various cellular processes. Dysregulated signalling, which is implicated in numerous diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders, is driving a growing body of research aimed at gaining deeper insights into cell signalling pathways.
Inflammation is an intricate biological reaction triggered by harmful factors like pathogens, injured cells, or irritants. Prolonged inflammation has been associated with various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative conditions, heart disease, and autoimmune disorders. Understanding the molecular mechanisms and biochemical agents that drive inflammatory responses has been a longstanding area of scientific investigation.
Kidney disease represents a substantial source of illness globally and is linked to substantial economic costs. To combat this challenge, researchers have intensified their endeavours to explore the causes and potential treatments for kidney disease. In this area of study, investigators employ a range of biomarkers and tools to gain deeper insights into the root causes that contribute to the decline in kidney function.
Metabolism is a sequence of chemical processes responsible for converting food into energy within an organism. Disruptions to these processes can have detrimental effects on an organism's health and can lead to disorders like diabetes, stroke, obesity, thyroid diseases, and cancer. Researchers studying metabolism commonly aim to understand how specific metabolic pathways influence biological outcomes.
Oxidative stress refers to the condition where there is an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their removal by antioxidant defences in the body. When ROS production exceeds the body's capacity to neutralise them, it can lead to damage to crucial cellular structures and functional biomarkers. This damage from oxidative stress has been associated with several diseases, including Parkinson's Disease and Alzheimer's Disease.
Exploring reproductive systems is a broad field with the potential to develop innovative treatments for reproductive disorders. Reproductive biology is crucial for comprehending pivotal stages in female reproductive health, including puberty, the menstrual cycle, and menopause. Additionally, it plays a fundamental role in wildlife conservation, aiding in the preservation of endangered species through scientific advancements.
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a key role in responding to stressors across various organisms. Precise measurement of stress is essential for studying behavioural responses and the molecular mechanisms involved in stress reactions.
Biomarker analysis often requires sample normalisation to correct for differences in sample volume and other sources of variability. This is especially crucial for aqueous samples like urine, which can have inconsistent dilution profiles, affecting the accuracy of biomarker measurements. Normalisation helps provide a consistent baseline for accurate analysis.