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Neurons initiate communication by exchanging neurotransmitters through synaptic transmission that allows communication between neurons, sensory organs, motor organs, and other neuronal cell populations to the post synaptic terminal of the cell body, which in turn activates either inhibitory or excitatory effects. 

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit a message from a nerve cell across the synapse to a target cell. The target can be a nerve cell, a muscle cell, or a gland cell. They are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron) and bind to and react with the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron. Neurotransmitters allow the impulse to cross a synapse (excitatory) or stop the impulse and prevent it from crossing a synapse (inhibitory). Neurotransmitters are themselves affected by agonists which amplify their effect and antagonists which reduce their effect.

There are two types of receptors:

Ionotropic receptors (Ligand-gated receptors) bind ionic ligands such as K+, Na+, Cl–, and Ca2+. Examples are the Cysteine loop family (nAch-R, GABA-R, Glycine-R, 5HT-R), Glutamate-R, and Purine-R.

Figure 1 (Kandel E.R., 2014).

Metabotropic receptors (G-protein coupled receptors)  bind non-ionic ligands such as chemical receptors or G protein-coupled receptors, which are single polypeptides with 7 transmembrane helixes. For example, Dopamine receptors, GABAB receptors, Glutamate receptors, and Histamine receptors. They use signal transduction mechanisms, often G proteins, to activate a series of intracellular events using second messenger chemicals.

Figure 2: (Piers C. Emson, 2010)

We supply a varied range of products assisting the research on neurotransmitters receptors such as GABA receptors, Glutamate receptors.



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