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Mutants from SARS-CoV-2 Variants - Delta, Lambda, Gamma, Alpha, Beta

As SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread and cause diseases, emerging variants of the virus are being identified around the globe. The persisting challenges of SARS-CoV-2 to the international public health system have elicited concerns among scientists, drug and vaccine developers and the general population. 

As SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread and cause diseases, emerging variants of the virus are being identified around the globe. The persisting challenges of SARS-CoV-2 to the international public health system have elicited concerns among scientists, drug and vaccine developers and the general population.

For easier and more practical discussion of the variants, the World Health Organization (WHO) has designated some variants “Variants of Concerns (VOCs)” or “Variants of Interests (VOIs)” because of their ability to significantly change the virus’ properties. Recently, WHO has renamed the dominantly circulating variants by Greek alphabets, i.e. Alpha (α) for B.1.1.7 (U.K. variant), Beta (β) for B.1.351 (South Africa), Gamma (γ) for P.1 (Brazil), Delta (γ) for B.1.617.2 (India), etc. Since the SARS-CoV-2 Delta outbreak in India in April 2021, the highly contagious Delta variant has rapidly spread all over the world and displaced Alpha to be the most prevalent variant.

Another variant Lambda (C.37) sparked headlines this summer after the WHO noted its rapid spread in South American countries, including Peru, Ecuador, Argentina and Brazil. The WHO reported that "lambda has been associated with substantive rates of community transmission in multiple countries, with rising prevalence over time concurrent with increased COVID-19 incidence" and that more investigations would be carried out into the variant.

To limit the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 variants, surveillance is needed to investigate how some variants may impact the virus’ transmissibility, the associated disease severity, or the effectiveness of vaccines, therapeutic medicines and diagnostic tools (see form below).

WHO Label Pango Lineage Earliest documented samples Transmissibility Immune Evasiveness Vaccine Effectiveness
Alpha B.1.1.7 United Kingdom + + + — —
Beta B.1.351 South Africa + + + + +
Gamma P.1 Brazil + + + +
Delta B.1.617.2 India + + + + + +
Lambda C.37 Peru + + + + + +

Dominant mutants worldwide

ACROBiosystems has been tracking the most up-to-date genomic data of the virus and going full steam ahead on SARS-CoV-2 variants-related product development. Now we present a complete solution to support your research and development on the variants: a collection of recombinant antigens, antibodies, ELISA kits and magnetic beads is now available now at ACROBiosystems.

Popular products

Recombinant antigens

  1. > Provide recombinant antigens of VOCs with critical mutations, covering K417N/T, E484K, N501Y and D614G on the spike protein; R203G, G204R on the nucleocapsid protein, etc.

  2. > Multiple tags (His, Avi, Fc, mFc) are now available in bulk supply.

  3. > High purity, high bioactivity and high stability verified by SEC-MALS&ELISA;

 

Featured products: Super stable spike trimer mutants

 
  • > Cover mutations of VOCs (Alpha/Beta/Delta/Gamma variants): Alpha (Cat.No. SPN-C52H6), Beta (Cat.No. SPN-C52Hk), Gamma (Cat.No. SPN-C52Hg), Delta (Cat.No. SPN-C52He),Lambda (Cat.No. SPN-C52Hs)

  • > Viral lineage information retrieved from GISAID/PANGOLIN/Nextstrain database

  • > Stable pre-fusion conformation secured by 6P & 2A mutations;

  • > High trimer purity (>90%) verified by SEC-MALS

  • > Suitable for inhibitor screening assays and serological antibody titer tests

 

Antibodies

  1. > Broad-spectrum neutralizing antibody: can potently neutralize all the VOCs in pseudovirus neutralization assay

  2. > Anti-nucleocapsid antibody pair: can recognize nucleocapsid protein of all the prevalent N variants

  3. > High specificity and binding activity verified by ELISA.

 

Featured products 1: Broad-spectrum neutralizing antibody verified by pseudovirus assay

 
  • > Cat.No. S1N-M122 can potently neutralize all the VOCs in pseudovirus neutralization assay, which is suitable to be a positive control in your inhibitor screening tests.

 

Featured products 2: Anti-nucleocapsid antibody pair verified by colloidal gold-based assay

  • > Cat.No. NUN-M223/NUN-S95 can recognize all the prevalent nucleocapsid protein variants verified by colloidal gold-based assay, making it an ideal ingredient for development of antigen detection tools.

 

ELISA Kits

  1. > Variants-specific ELISA kits are available

  2. > Detect anti-mutant-neutralizing antibodies based on competitive ELISA

  3. > High sensitivity and specificity with highly reproducible results

  4. > High-throughput: can test 90+ samples at the same time

 

Featured products: Variants-specific ELISA kits

 
  • > Variants-specific ELISA kits can be used for evaluating vaccine effectiveness against viral variants by measuring anti-mutant-neutralizaing antibody titers

Lineage Cat. No.
SARS-CoV-2  (U.K) Alpha | B.1.1.7 RAS-N028
SARS-CoV-2  (South Africa) Beta | B.1.351 RAS-N031
SARS-CoV-2  (Brazil) Gamma | P.1

 

RAS-N034
SARS-CoV-2  (India) Delta | B.1.617.2

 

RAS-N040 , RAS-N041

 

Products Targeting Circulating Variants

Application & Sample data

Scientific research: verify binding ability between spike mutants and ACE2

As verified by SPR assay, the binding affinity between SARS-CoV-2 RBD mutants and human ACE2 is generally 10-fold higher (Alpha: KD=1.24E-09; Beta: 3.27E-09; Gamma: 2.23E-09M) than the binding affinity between WT RBD and ACE2 (KD=1.03E-08M). The increased binding affinity of the RBD mutants with ACE2 may be underlying the increased infectivity of the Alpha/Beta/Gamma variants by facilitating viral entry into human cells.

Figure 1. SARS-CoV-2 WT/variant Spike RBD (Upper left: WT, Cat.No. SPD-C52H3; upper right: Alpha, Cat.No. SPD-C52Hn; lower left: Beta, Cat.No. SPD-C52Hp; lower right: Gamma, Cat.No. SPD-C52Hr) captured on Protein A Biosensor can bind human ACE2 (Cat.No. AC2-H52H8) with differential affinity as determined in SPR assay.

 

Vaccine evaluation: verify neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 variants

a. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Variant Neutralizing Antibody Titer Serologic Assay Kit

Figure 2. Measurement of antibody titer in 56 post-vaccination (Inactivated vaccine) serum samples by Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Variant Neutralizing Antibody Titer Serologic Assay Kits. The neutralizing ability of the vaccinated sera against the Alpha variant (Cat. No. RAS-N028) is slightly compromised as compared to the wild type (Cat. No. RAS-N022); neutralization against the Beta variant (Cat.No. RAS-N031) and Gamma variant (Cat.No. RAS-N034) decreased significantly.  

b. Broad-spectrum neutralizing antibody (positive control)

As verified by pseudovirus assay, the broad-spectrum neutralizing antibody can potently neutralize all the SARS-CoV-2 VOCs at comparable level with the WT.

Figure 3. Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 WT RBD and Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Kappa variant by a broadly neutralizing antibody (Cat. No. S1N-M122)

 

Therapeutic drug development: screen for highly potent small molecule drugs/broad-spectrum neutralizing antibodies

a. Inhibitor screening kit

The verification performed in P3-level lab confirmed the ability of the selected antibodies to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection of Vero cells. The data demonstrated the high sensitivity of the kit.

Figure 4. Inhibitor screening ELISA assay by SARS-CoV-2 Inhibitor Screening Kit (Cat. No. EP-105)

b. Antigen-pre-coupled Magnetic Beads

Figure 5. Capture of Anti-S1 Antibody by SARS-CoV-2 Spike Trimer (B.1.1.7) Coupled Magnetic Beads (Cat.No. MBS-K029). Immobilized 24μg Spike protein/1mg beads can bind the Anti-S1 Antibody with an EC50 of 0.5848μg/mL (QC tested).

 

3. Diagnostic tools development: verify if S/N antibody pair can recognize S/N variants

a. Anti-Spike Antibody Pair

Figure 6. Detection of Spike RBD variants (Cat.No. SPD-C52Hn; SRD-C52H3; SPD-C52Hp) by anti-spike antibody pair (Cat. No. S1N-M12A1, S1N-M13A1) in Sandwich ELISA

b. Anti-Nucleocapsid Antibody Pair

Figure 9. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Antibody, Human IgG1 (Cat. No. NUN-S95) (Detection antibody) can bind multiple nucleocapsid protein variants with high affinity comparable with the WT N protein (Cat. No. NUN-C5227).

Figure 10. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Antibody, Chimeric mAb, Human IgG1 (AM223) (Cat. No. NUN-M223) (Capture antibody) can bind multiple nucleocapsid protein variants with high affinity comparable with the WT N protein (Cat. No. NUN-C5227).

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